I recently re-watched a Ted talk on Mastery Based Learning by Sal Khan that I have posted on this blog before. In summary, Mastery Based Learning (MBL) is about helping students learn at their own pace and ensuring that they have fully mastered a specific skill or topic before they are introduced to new content, regardless of how long it takes. This means that if a student has not learnt how to read at a certain level when they are evaluated, they will not be progressing to an advanced class.
This is not how the majority of schools work in the UK. Most schools progress students at a predetermined pace based on what is expected of their age group. If gaps are identified in a student’s knowledge of a subject after they take an exam, they may get a bad grade but they, along with the rest of the class, will still move on to a different subject that is often more complicated. If a student fails their exam in year 8 they will still be able to progress to year 9 irrespective of whether they have understood the basic concepts from their previous year.
The above system of learning is one of the reasons why we have many people who have finished secondary school, but still have serious difficulty with reading and basic algebra. It could also be why very capable students disengage with certain subjects and believe that they don’t have a ‘math’s gene’, when they simply haven’t been given enough time to master their subject and deal with areas that they find fuzzy.
In making his point, Khan asks, rhetorically, if people would not build a house on top of an unfinished foundation, why they would allow students to progress through school when they have often not fully grasped the elementary areas of their subjects.
In Khan’s opinion, the traditional system of school should be flipped. Lecture videos should be set for homework and class should be used for students to work through any extra questions that they may have with the teacher.
My initial thoughts when I watched the talk were, wow this is fantastic! What an amazing idea. But on second thoughts I have a few questions about how this would work in reality. Do all students have the necessary self-discipline to engage with MBL and watch lectures for homework – especially for topics they are not really interested in? Should we practice MBL in every subject? Will it work for art and performance studies? Are online videos effective at teaching students topics that they find complicated? What about students who don’t have access to the Internet or who live in poor home environments that are not conducive to learning?
Whilst MBL sounds good in theory, a lot more needs to be explored before we agree to revolt and topple the current system of education. On-line learning is useful, but it may not work for everyone.
Few issues raise as much heated debated within education circles in the UK as does the topic of grammar school expansion. Those in favour argue that grammar schools help academically bright children from disadvantaged backgrounds obtain a better form of education than they would otherwise receive in a comprehensive. In defending their position, supporters point to grammar schools’ typically smaller classroom sizes, which provide students more opportunities to participate in deeper discussions and make it easier for teachers to focus on individual students’ needs. Advocates also highlight grammar schools’ stellar exam results and roll call of successful alumni (though many comprehensive schools can also proudly toot their own horns about the accomplishments of their former students).
Research conducted by the IFS suggests that grammar schools are beneficial for having a successful career and higher income. In addition, a report by the Sutton Trust noted that ‘pupils in grammar schools do better than pupils with the same characteristics in other non-selective schools’. These indicate that by receiving a better education, disadvantaged children could be empowered to improve their overall life outcomes.
Those who are against the proliferation of grammar schools contend that selective schools are socially divisive and reinforce middle class privilege. The view of this camp is that families from wealthier backgrounds are better able to prepare their children to take 11+ exams (by paying for extra tuition or sending their children to private primary schools, for example). They can also afford homes, which by virtue of being in the catchment area of good grammar schools are more expensive (and out of the reach of families on lower incomes).
In addition, opponents argue that comprehensive schools in areas where there are grammar schools perform worse than those without grammar schools. This could be because grammar schools are able to ‘lure’ the best teachers or because removing the ‘top students’ has a negative effect on a school’s overall performance. Critics also note that the grammar school system is potentially damaging to young people’s confidence and self-esteem as it inadvertently labels children who don’t pass the 11 + as ‘failures’ or ‘less intelligent’.
In my own opinion, and given my life experiences, I believe the nation would be far better served if the government invested in raising the quality of state comprehensives rather than focusing on a wholesale increase in the number of grammar schools. To be sure, I have many close friends from disadvantaged backgrounds who have benefited immensely from attending a grammar school or securing a private school scholarship. Therefore I cannot deny that attending one of these types of schools can positively impact an individual’s life outcomes. Nevertheless, one should not mix up the potential benefit that attending a grammar school may have on an individual, with the overall effect that an expansion of the grammar schools system may have on the educational outcome of the nation as a whole. The reality remains that the majority of disadvantaged pupils will attend a comprehensive. As such, the government should be focused on implementing policies that will benefit the wider population of young people, rather than a select cohort of pupils who have access to the knowledge and resources required to take advantage of these opportunities.
It has been over 6 months since Boko Haram rolled into a school in Chibok, northern Nigeria, rounded approximately 300 teenage girls into trucks, set the school on fire, then drove into a forest and disappeared.
The abduction prompted international outrage and a viral #bringbackourgirls twitter campaign. Many people sought to pressure the Nigerian government to do more to help find the missing children.
Although the media campaign for the return of the girls was well intentioned and created significant awareness, the girls have not been found. Whilst some of them managed to escape, many families are still in limbo. They are wondering if and when their daughters will be coming home. It seems crazy that the government have not yet rescued the girls; despite a world of Scandal style secret intelligence officers, military surveillance and supposedly doing all they can to bring them back. We must keep up our prayers and fight for their return.
And even if these girls do return, and I hope they do soon, the tragedy is far from over. In a country where only 11% of females finish secondary school and girls make up approximately 60% of the 77 million children not in education, Boko Haram is not the only problem. In some societies within Nigeria, it is believed that females ought not to work outside the home. There is an unwritten rule that says women can chose to be either housewives or develop their personal goals – but not both. In some areas, females who chose to pursue ambitious careers are ostracized and considered immodest and unwomanly. Statements such as “if you continue down that path you will never marry”, “don’t disgrace our home” and “know your place” are rife. Many young girls are forced out of school early and thrown into a life of servitude marriage with men who are old enough to be their grandfathers. Others are told that school is not a priority because they are female.
This is not to say that inadequate access to education always boil down to gender discrimination. One of the greatest factors hindering educational attainment within Nigeria is poverty. And poverty does not care about your gender. Another issue is illiteracy amongst parents and guardians. It is clear that the socio-economic status and educational viewpoint of a parent has a major effect on the development of the child. Indeed, the majority of educated Nigerian parents I know (both within the diaspora and back home) subscribe to a type of tiger style parenting where high achievement and investment in education is greatly encouraged – whether you are a boy or a girl. However, the fact that there are so many girls, especially in the northern states, not attending school demonstrates that gender bias is a problem. It is also evident that this problem is not as pertinent in the south of Nigeria as it is in the north. Studies show that 84% of poorest girls aged 7-16 years in the northwest have never been to school, compared to only 18% of children in the southeast. Evaluating who goes to school, who gets left behind and why is vital for strategic policymaking and for the future of the country.
We must bring to the forefront the gender issues that affect women in Nigeria. These challenges have a detrimental effect on the holistic growth of females, as well as on male development and the progress of the nation as a whole. The Nigerian government and society need to do more than #bringbackourgirls, they need to ensure that all our girls are given an equal opportunity to gain an education and make their own choices to excel – whether that be in the home, community, government or in the boardroom.
#goal: to write about something I’m passionate about.